Infections with Clostridium perfringens
Enterotoxaemia of fatlings caused by Clostridium perfringens type D (pulpy kidney disease) is characterised by a peracute onset. Damage of endothelia by epsilon-toxin and emission of blood plasma leads to rapid death.
Enterotoxaemia of sucking lambs (yellow lamb disease) caused by Clostridium perfringens type A leads to rapid death, too.
Lamb dysenteria is caused by Clostridium perfringens type B. A peracute form with sudden death and an acute form characterised by bloody diarrhoea of new-born lambs with high lethality is distinguished.
Haemorrhagic enterotoxaemia caused by Clostridium perfringens type C affects adult sheep.
Infections withMannheimia haemolytica
Pasteurellosis of sheep and goats is one of the most important respiratory diseases and is mainly caused by obligate pathogenic Mannheimia haemolytica, which induce an acute fibrinous-necrotic pneumonia. Also viruses and other bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma spp. as well as stress contribute to the development of this disease. Biotype T and A can be differentiated (latent infection of different serotypes). It affects sheep and goats of all ages, especially lambs up to six months of age. Clinical signs such as fever, serous to purulent discharge of the nose and sporadic cough up to sudden death due to septicaemia can appear.
The most frequent pathogens causing mastitis are Staphylococcus aureus, E.coli, Streptococcus sp., as well as Pasteurella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes.
Infections with anaerobic bacteria
Dermatitis contagiosa interdigitalis (footrot) is an infectious disease of sheep determined by many factors. As a herd disease animals of all ages are affected. Factors such as humid soil, dirty claws and injuries of the interdigital skin lead to anaerobe conditions and colonisation with Fusobacterium necrophorum. Tissue is damaged by exotoxins and colonisation with Dichelobacter (Bacteroides) nodosus.
Infections with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
Pseudotuberculosis (caseous lymphadenitis) is a chronic infectious disease of sheep and goats characterised by necrotic inflammation of the lymph nodes. Economic losses are due to loss of efficiency and rejection of carcasses.